Prevention of Chronic Disease by Means of Diet and Lifestyle Changes

  • Ascherio A., Cho E., Walsh K., Sacks F. M., Willett W. C., Faruqui A. Premature Coronary Deaths in Asians (letter). British Medical Journal. 1996;312:508. [PMC free article: PMC2349932] [PubMed: 8597699]

  • Bacon C. G., Mittleman M. A., Kawachi I., Giovannucci E., Glasser D. B., Rimm E. B. Sexual Function in Men Older Than 50 Years of Age: Results from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2003;139:161–68. [PubMed: 12899583]

  • Ball D., Ellison S., Adamy J., Fowler G. Recipes without Borders? Wall Street Journal, August. 2004;18:2004. , p. 1.

  • Baylin A., Kabagambe E. K., Ascherio A., Spiegelman D., Campos H. Adipose Tissue Alpha-Linolenic Acid and Nonfatal Acute Myocardial Infarction in Costa Rica. Circulation. 2003;107:1586–91. [PubMed: 12668490]

  • Bell A. C., Ge K., Popkin B. M. The Road to Obesity or the Path to Prevention: Motorized Transportation and Obesity in China. Obesity Research. 2002;10:277–83. [PubMed: 11943837]

  • Bell E. A., Roe L. S., Rolls B. J. Sensory-Specific Satiety Is Affected More by Volume Than by Energy Content of a Liquid Food. Physiology and Behavior. 2003;78:593–600. [PubMed: 12782213]

  • Blendon, R. J. 2002. Welfare of Children in America. Cambridge, MA: Cogent Research.

  • Bly J. L., Jones R. C., Richardson J. E. Impact of Worksite Health Promotion on Health Care Costs and Utilization. Evaluation of Johnson & Johnson’s Live for Life Program. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1986;256:3235–40. [PubMed: 3783867]

  • Boutelle K, Jeffery R., McMurray D., Schmitz K. Using Signs, Artwork, and Music to Promote Stair Use in a Public Building. American Journal of Public Health. 2001;91:2004–6. [PMC free article: PMC1446922] [PubMed: 11726383]

  • Bunn F., Collier T., Frost C., Ker K., Roberts I., Wentz R. Traffic Calming for the Prevention of Road Traffic Injuries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Injury Prevention. 2003;9:200–4. [PMC free article: PMC1730987] [PubMed: 12966005]

  • Buss D. Is the Food Industry the Problem or the Solution? New York Times, August. 2004;29:2004. , p. 5.

  • Calle E. E., Rodriguez C., Walker-Thurmond K., Thun M. J. Overweight, Obesity, and Mortality from Cancer in a Prospectively Studied Cohort of U.S. Adults. New England Journal of Medicine. 2003;348:1625–38. [PubMed: 12711737]

  • Coitinho D., Monteiro C. A., Popkin B. M. What Brazil Is Doing to Promote Healthy Diets and Active Lifestyles. Public Health Nutrition. 2002;5:263–67. [PubMed: 12027293]

  • Colditz G. A. Economic Costs of Obesity and Inactivity. Medicine Science and Sports Exercise. 1999;31:S663–67. [PubMed: 10593542]

  • Conlin P. R. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (Dash) Clinical Trial: Implications for Lifestyle Modifications in the Treatment of Hypertensive Patients. Cardiology Review. 1999;7:284–88. [PubMed: 11208239]

  • Cutter J., Tan B. Y., Chew S. K. Levels of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Singapore Following a National Intervention Programme. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2001;79:908–15. [PMC free article: PMC2566668] [PubMed: 11693972]

  • de Lorgeril M., Renaud S., Mamelle N., Salen P., Martin J. L., Monjaud I. et al. Mediterranean Alpha-Linolenic Acid–Rich Diet in Secondary Prevention of Coronary artery disease. Lancet. 1994;343:1454–59. (Erratum in Lancet 1995, 345: 738.) [PubMed: 7911176]

  • Dickinson S., Colagiuri S., Faramus E., Petocz P., Brand-Miller J. C. Postprandial Hyperglycemia and Insulin Sensitivity Differ among Lean Young Adults of Different Ethnicities. Journal of Nutrition. 2002;132:2574–79. [PubMed: 12221211]

  • Ebbeling C. B., Leidig M. M., Sinclair K. B., Hangen J. P., Ludwig D. S. A Reduced-Glycemic Load Diet in the Treatment of Adolescent Obesity. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 2003;157:773–79. [PubMed: 12912783]

  • Ewing R, Schieber R., Zegeer C. Urban Sprawl as a Risk Factor in Motor Vehicle Occupant and Pedestrian Facilities. American Journal of Public Health. 2003;93:1541–45. [PMC free article: PMC1448007] [PubMed: 12948977]

  • Fox K. R. The Influence of Physical Activity on Mental Well-Being. Public Health Nutrition. 1999;2:411–18. [PubMed: 10610081]

  • Frumkin H. Urban Sprawl and Public Health. Public Health Reports. 2002;117:201–17. [PMC free article: PMC1497432] [PubMed: 12432132]

  • Giovannucci E. Epidemiologic Studies of Folate and Colorectal Neoplasia: A Review. Journal of Nutrition. 2002;132:2350–55S. [PubMed: 12163691]

  • Gortmaker S. L., Peterson K., Wiecha J., Sobol A. M., Dixit S., Fox M. K., Laird N. Reducing Obesity via a School-Based Interdisciplinary Intervention among Youth: Planet Health. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 1999;153:409–18. [PubMed: 10201726]

  • Grundy, S. M. 1992. “How Much Does Diet Contribute to Premature Coronary Heart Disease?” In Atherosclerosis IX: Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Atherosclerosis, ed. O. Stein, S. Eisenberg, and Y. Stein, 471–78. Tel Aviv: Creative Communications.

  • Handy S. L., Boarnet M. G., Ewing R., Killingsworth R. E. How the Built Environment Affects Physical Activity: Views from Urban Planning. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2002;23:64–73. [PubMed: 12133739]

  • Hao L., Ma J., Stampfer M. J., Ren A., Tian Y., Tang Y. et al. Geographical, Seasonal, and Gender Differences in Folate Status among Chinese Adults. Journal of Nutrition. 2003;133:3630–35. [PubMed: 14608086]

  • Harris M. I., Flegal K. M., Cowie C. C., Eberhardt M. S., Goldstein D. E., Little R. R. et al. Prevalence of Diabetes, Impaired Fasting Glucose, and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in U.S. Adults: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Diabetes Care. 1998;21:518–24. [PubMed: 9571335]

  • Hernandez B., Gortmaker S. L., Colditz G. A., Peterson K. E., Laird N. M., Parra-Cabrera S. Association of Obesity with Physical Activity, Television Programs, and Other Forms of Video Viewing among Children in Mexico City. International Journal of Obesity and Relational Metabolism Disorders. 1999;23:845–54. [PubMed: 10490786]

  • Honein M. A., Paulozzi L. J., Mathews T. J., Erickson J. D., Wong L. Y. Impact of Folic Acid Fortification of the U.S. Food Supply on the Occurrence of Neural Tube Defects. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2001;285:2981–86. [PubMed: 11410096]

  • Hu. 1999.

  • Hu. 2002.

  • Hu F. B., Leitzmann M. F., Stampfer M. J., Colditz G. A., Willett W. C., Rimm E. B. Physical Activity and Television Watching in Relation to Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Men. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2001;161:1542–48. [PubMed: 11427103]

  • Hu F. B., Stampfer M. J., Manson J. E., Rimm E. B., Wolk A., Colditz G. A. et al. Dietary Intake of Alpha-Linolenic Acid and Risk of Fatal Ischemic Heart Disease among Women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1999;69:890–97. [PubMed: 10232627]

  • Hu F. B., Stampfer M. J., Manson J. E., Rimm E., Colditz G. A., Rosner B. A. et al. Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women. New England Journal of Medicine. 1997;337:1491–99. [PubMed: 9366580]

  • Hu F. B., van Dam R. M., Liu S. Diet and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Types of Fat and Carbohydrate. Diabetologia. 2001;44:805–17. [PubMed: 11508264]

  • Hu F. B., Wang B., Chen C., Jin Y., Yang J., Stampfer M. J., Xu X. Body Mass Index and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Rural Chinese Population. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2000;151:88–97. [PubMed: 10625178]

  • Hu F. B., Willett W. C. Optimal Diets for Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2002;288:2569–78. [PubMed: 12444864]

  • Hu G., Pekkarinen H., Hanninen O., Yu Z. J., Tian H. G., Guo Z. Y., Nissinen A. Physical Activity during Leisure and Commuting in Tianjin, China. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2002;80:933–38. [PMC free article: PMC2567698] [PubMed: 12571720]

  • IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2002. Weight Control and Physical Activity. Lyon, France: IARC Press.

  • Institute of Medicine. 2002. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients): A Report of the Panel on Macronutrients, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. http://www​.nap.edu/catalog/10490.html.

  • Jones T. F., Eaton C. B. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Walking to Prevent Coronary Heart Disease. Archives of Family Medicine. 1994;3:703–10. [PubMed: 7952257]

  • Keeler E. B., Manning W. G., Newhouse J. P., Sloss E. M., Wasserman J. The External Costs of a Sedentary Life-Style. American Journal of Public Health. 1989;79:975–81. [PMC free article: PMC1349889] [PubMed: 2502036]

  • Knowler W. C., Barrett-Connor E., Fowler S. E., Hamman R. F., Lachin J. M., Walker E. A., Nathan D. M. Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes with Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin. New England Journal of Medicine. 2002;346(6):393–403. [PMC free article: PMC1370926] [PubMed: 11832527]

  • Koplan J. P., Dietz W. H. Caloric Imbalance and Public Health Policy. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1999;282:1579–81. [PubMed: 10546699]

  • Lambert E. V., Bohlmann I., Kolbe-Alexander T. `Be Active’: Physical Activity for Health in South Africa. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001;14:S12–16.

  • Law M. R., Frost C. D., Wald N. J. By How Much Does Dietary Salt Reduction Lower Blood Pressure? III—Analysis of Data from Trials of Salt Reduction. British Medical Journal. 1991;302(6780):819–24. [PMC free article: PMC1669188] [PubMed: 1827353]

  • Leitzmann M. F., Rimm E. B., Willett W. C., Spiegelman D., Grodstein F., Stampfer M. J. et al. Recreational Physical Activity and the Risk of Cholecystectomy in Women. New England Journal of Medicine. 1999;341:777–84. [PubMed: 10477775]

  • Leyden K. Social Capital and the Built Environment: The Importance of Walkable Neighborhoods. American Journal of Public Health. 2003;93:1546–51. [PMC free article: PMC1448008] [PubMed: 12948978]

  • Lopez R. Urban Sprawl and Risk for Being Overweight or Obese. American Journal of Public Health. 2004;94:1574–79. [PMC free article: PMC1448496] [PubMed: 15333317]

  • Ludwig D. S., Peterson K. E., Gortmaker S. L. Relation between Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Drinks and Childhood Obesity: A Prospective, Observational Analysis. Lancet. 2001;357:505–8. [PubMed: 11229668]

  • Mak K. H., Chia K. S., Kark J. D., Chua T., Tan C., Foong B. H. et al. Ethnic Differences in Acute Myocardial Infarction in Singapore. European Heart Journal. 2003;24:151–60. [PubMed: 12573272]

  • Matsudo V., Matsudo S., Andrade D., Araujo T., Andrade E., de Oliveira L. Carlos, Braggion G. Promotion of Physical Activity in a Developing Country: The Agita São Paulo Experience. Public Health Nutrition. 2002;5:253–61. [PubMed: 12027292]

  • Nestle, M. 2002. Food Politics: How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health. Berkeley. CA: University of California Press.

  • Nissinen A., Berrios X., Puska P. Community-Based Noncommunicable Disease Interventions: Lessons from Developed Countries for Developing Ones. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2001;79:963–70. [PMC free article: PMC2566669] [PubMed: 11693979]

  • Office of the Administrator. 2001. What Is Smart Growth? Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. http://www​.epa.gov/smartgrowth​/pdf/whtissg4v2.pdf.

  • Oomen C. M., Ocke M. C., Feskens E. J., van Erp-Baart M. A., Kok F. J., Kromhout D. Association between Trans Fatty Acid Intake and 10-Year Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in the Zutphen Elderly Study: A Prospective Population-Based Study. Lancet. 2001;357:746–51. [PubMed: 11253967]

  • Pendakur, V. S. 2000. World Bank Urban Transport Strategy Review. Yokohama, Japan: Pacific Policy and Planning Associates.

  • Petrella R., Koval J., Cunningham D., Paterson D. Can Primary Care Doctors Prescribe Exercise to Improve Fitness: The Step Test Exercise Prescription (STEP) Project. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2003;24:316–22. [PubMed: 12726869]

  • Pignone M. P., Ammerman A., Fernandez L., Orleans C. T., Pender N., Woolf S. et al. Counseling to Promote a Healthy Diet in Adults: A Summary of the Evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2003;24:75–92. [PubMed: 12554027]

  • Pratt M., Macera C. A., Wang G. Higher Direct Medical Costs Associated with Physical Inactivity. Physician and Sports Medicine. 2000;28:63–70. http://www​.physsportsmed​.com/issues/2000/10_00/pratt.htm. [PubMed: 20086598]

  • Pronk N. P., Goodman M. J., O’Connor P. J., Martinson B. C. Relationship between Modifiable Health Risks and Short-Term Health Care Charges. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1999;282:2235–39. [PubMed: 10605975]

  • Pucher J., Dijkstra L. Promoting Safe Walking and Cycling to Improve Public Health: Lessons from the Netherlands and Germany. American Journal of Public Health. 2003;93:1509–16. [PMC free article: PMC1448001] [PubMed: 12948971]

  • Puska P., Vartiainen E., Tuomilehto J., Salomaa V., Nissinen A. Changes in Premature Deaths in Finland: Successful Long-Term Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1998;76:419–25. [PMC free article: PMC2305767] [PubMed: 9803593]

  • Raben A., Vasilaras T. H., Moller A. C., Astrup A. Sucrose Compared with Artificial Sweeteners: Different Effects on Ad Libitum Food Intake and Body Weight after 10 Weeks of Supplementation in Overweight Subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002;76:721–29. [PubMed: 12324283]

  • Robinson T. N. Reducing Children’s Television Viewing to Prevent Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1999;282:1561–67. [PubMed: 10546696]

  • Rossouw J. E., Jooste P. L., Chalton D. O., Jordaan E. R., Langenhoven M. L., Jordaan P. C. et al. Community-Based Intervention: The Coronary Risk Factor Study (Coris). International Journal of Epidemiology. 1993;22:428–38. [PubMed: 8359958]

  • Ruangdaraganon N., Kotchabhakdi N., Udomsubpayakul U., Kunanusont C., Suriyawongpaisal P. The Association between Television Viewing and Childhood Obesity: A National Survey in Thailand. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 2002;85(Suppl. 4):S1075–80. [PubMed: 12549779]

  • Saelens B. E., Sallis J. F., Frank L. D. Environmental Correlates of Walking and Cycling: Findings from the Transportation, Urban Design, and Planning Literatures. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2003;25:80–91. [PubMed: 12704009]

  • Salmeron J., Hu F. B., Manson J. E., Stampfer M. J., Colditz G. A., Rimm E. B., Willett W. C. Dietary Fat Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001;73:1019–26. [PubMed: 11382654]

  • Schulze M. B., Manson J. E., Ludwig D. S., Colditz G. A., Stampfer M. J., Willett W. C., Hu F. B. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Weight Gain, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Young and Middle-Aged Women. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2004;292:927–34. [PubMed: 15328324]

  • Selmer R., Kristiansen I., Haglerod A., Graff-Iverson S., Larsen H., Meyer H. et al. Cost and Health Consequences of Reducing the Population Intake of Salt. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2000;54:697–702. [PMC free article: PMC1731748] [PubMed: 10942450]

  • Sobngwi E., Gautier J. F., Mbanya J. C. Exercise and the Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Women (author reply). New England Journal of Medicine. 2003;348:77–79. [PubMed: 12510049]

  • Staunton C., Hubsmith D., Kallins W. Promoting Safe Walking and Biking to School: The Marin County Success Story. American Journal of Public Health. 2003;93:1431–34. [PMC free article: PMC1447987] [PubMed: 12948957]

  • Surface Transportation Policy Project. 1999. “Aggressive Driving: Where You Live Matters.” Washington, DC. http://www​.transact.org/report.asp?id=56.

  • Swinburn B. A., Caterson I., Seidell J. C., James W. P. Diet, Nutrition, and the Prevention of Excess Weight Gain and Obesity. Public Health Nutrition. 2004;7:123–46. [PubMed: 14972057]

  • Toh C. M., Cutter J., Chew S. K. School-Based Intervention Has Reduced Obesity in Singapore. British Medical Journal. 2002;324:427. [PMC free article: PMC1122348] [PubMed: 11850385]

  • Tosteson A., Weinstein M., Hunink M., Mittleman M. A., Williams L., Goldman P., Goldman L. Cost-Effectiveness of Population-Wide Educational Approaches to Reduce Serum Cholesterol Levels. Circulation. 1997;95:24–30. [PubMed: 8994412]

  • Tudor-Locke C., Ainsworth B. E., Adair L. S., Du S., Popkin B. M. Physical Activity and Inactivity in Chinese School-Aged Youth: The China Health and Nutrition Survey. International Journal of Obesity. 2003;27:1093–99. [PubMed: 12917716]

  • Tuomilehto J., Lindstrom J., Eriksson J. G., Valle T. T., Hamalainen H., Ilanne-Parikka P. et al. Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Changes in Lifestyle among Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance. New England Journal of Medicine. 2001;344:1343–50. [PubMed: 11333990]

  • Unwin N., Setel P., Rashid S., Mugusi F., Mbanya J. C., Kitange H. et al. Noncommunicable Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: Where Do They Feature in the Health Research Agenda? Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2001;79:947–53. [PMC free article: PMC2566676] [PubMed: 11693977]

  • U.S. Food Drug Administration, Center for Food and Safety and Applied Nutrition. 2003. “Food Labeling: Trans Fatty Acids in Nutrition.” Federal Register68, no. 133, 41433–506 (July 11, 2003). http://www​.cfsan.fda​.gov/~lrd/fr03711a.html (see also http://vm​.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/fr991117​.html). [PubMed: 12856667]

  • Uusitalo U., Feskens E. J., Tuomilehto J., Dowse G., Haw U., Fareed D. et al. Fall in Total Cholesterol Concentration over Five Years in Association with Changes in Fatty Acid Composition of Cooking Oil in Mauritius: Cross-Sectional Survey. British Medical Journal. 1996;313:1044–46. [PMC free article: PMC2352358] [PubMed: 8898594]

  • Wang G., Macera C., Scudder-Soucie B., Schmid T., Pratt M., Buchner D. Cost Effectiveness of a Bicycle/Pedestrian Trail Development in Health Promotion. Preventive Medicine. 2004;38:237–42. [PubMed: 14715217]

  • Wang S. Y., Chi G. B., Jing C. X., Dong X. M., Wu C. P., Li L. P. Trends in Road Traffic Crashes and Associated Injury and Fatality in the People’s Republic of China, 1951–1999. Injury Control and Safety Promotion. 2003;10:83–87. [PubMed: 12772490]

  • WHO (World Health Organization). 2000. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. WHO Technical Report 894. Geneva: WHO. [PubMed: 11234459]

  • ———. 2002. The World Health Organization Report 2002: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva: WHO. [PubMed: 14741909]

  • WHO and FAO (World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2003. Diet, Nutrition, and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases: Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. Report 916. Geneva: WHO.

  • Willett W. C. Balancing Lifestyle and Genomics Research for Disease Prevention. Science. 2002;296:695–98. [PubMed: 11976443]

  • Willett W. C., Ascherio A. Trans-Fatty Acids: Are the Effects Only Marginal? American Journal of Public Health. 1994;84:722–24. [PMC free article: PMC1615057] [PubMed: 8179036]

  • Willett W. C., Dietz W. H., Colditz G. A. Guidelines for Healthy Weight. New England Journal of Medicine. 1999;341:427–34. [PubMed: 10432328]

  • Willett W. C., Leibel R. L. Dietary Fat Is Not a Major Determinant of Body Fat. American Journal of Medicine. 2002;113(Suppl. 9B):47–59S. [PubMed: 12566139]

  • World Bank. 2003. Noncommunicable Diseases in Pacific Island Countries: Disease Burden, Economic Cost, and Policy Options. Nouméa, New Caledonia: World Bank.

  • Zatonski W. A., McMichael A. J., Powles J. W. Ecological Study of Reasons for Sharp Decline in Mortality from Ischaemic Heart Disease in Poland since 1991. British Medical Journal. 1998;316:1047–51. [PMC free article: PMC28506] [PubMed: 9552904]

  • Source

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

    Related Post

    Smell HacksSmell Hacks

    Got a stinky room in your house? Try one of these genius DIY smell hacks to banish those gross smells. Whether your cooking smells have lingered or you have company