(PDF) Environmental Pollution Causes and Consequences: A Study

Abstract

Man is causing all round damage to atmosphere, water, land, to the various elements of environment and to the ecosystem itself. There is so much man-made pollution and environmental degradation that the nightmare ahead is enough jittery to shake us all. Taking a synoptic view of the general scenario a few trends are underway. Our atmosphere on global as well as regional scale is heavily polluted. The protective ozone shield in the heavily populated latitudes of the northern hemisphere is thinning twice fast as scientists thought a few years ago. The buildup of green house gases will lead to significant changes in the weather patterns in the near future leading to global warming. The destruction of ozone layer and the further warming of the earth surface threaten catastrophic consequences such as eruption of cancerous and tropical diseases, disruption of oceans food chain, rising of sea levels, submersion of many islands, melting of small land-based glaciers, flooding in many low lying coastal areas and harvest loss etc.

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IRJIF I.F. : 3.015

North Asian International Research Journal of

Social Science & Humanities

North Asian International research Journal consortiums www.nairjc.com

ISSN: 2454-9827 Vol. 3, Issue-8 August-2017

151

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CAUSES AND

CONSEQUENCES: A STUDY

*DR. RAMAMOHANA REDDY APPANNAGARI

*Environmental Ecologist.

ABSTRACT

Man is causing all round damage to atmosphere, water, land, to the various elements of environment and

to the ecosystem itself. There is so much man-made pollution and environmental degradation that the

nightmare ahead is enough jittery to shake us all. Taking a synoptic view of the general scenario a few

trends are underway. Our atmosphere on global as well as regional scale is heavily polluted. The

protective ozone shield in the heavily populated latitudes of the northern hemisphere is thinning twice fast

as scientists thought a few years ago. The buildup of green house gases will lead to significant changes in

the weather patterns in the near future leading to global warming. The destruction of ozone layer and the

further warming of the earth surface threaten catastrophic consequences such as eruption of cancerous

and tropical diseases, disruption of oceans food chain, rising of sea levels, submersion of many islands,

melting of small land-based glaciers, flooding in many low lying coastal areas and harvest loss etc.

INTRODUCTION

The concept of environment is as old as the concept of the nature itself. It is a composite term referring to

conditions in which organisms consisting of air, water, food, sunlight etc., thrive and become living sources of

life for- all the living and non-living beings including plant life. The term also includes atmospheric temperature,

wind and its velocity.

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Before understanding what “Environmental Pollution” is it is equally necessary to-know what “pollution”

is.

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DEFINITION OF POLLUTION

The Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution in U.K. in its third report gave the following

definition to the term “Pollution”, namely:

The introduction by man into the environment of substances or energy liable to cause hazards to human

health, harm to living resources and ecological systems, damage to structure or amenity or interference with

legitimate uses of the environment”.

According to Section 1(3) of the U.K. Environment Protection Act, 1990, the term „Pollution‟ means:

The release (into any environmental medium) from any process of substances which are capable of

causing harm to man or any other living organisms supported by the environment.

Pollution occurs when there is the potential for harm. Harm of man is not confined to physical injury but

encompasses offence caused to any of his senses or harm to his property, therefore smells and noise which I may

not cause injury can constitute pollution. Harm to living organisms can include harm to their health or

interference with the ecological systems of which they form a part”.

KINDS OF POLLUTION

Environmental pollution may broadly be classified into: (1) Natural pollution; (2) Man-made pollution.

1. Natural Pollution: Environment is polluted often by natural phenomenon, such as earthquakes, floods,

drought, cyclones, etc.

2. Man-made Pollution: Human activities.

The environmental pollution can also be classified further as, Air pollution, water pollution, land

pollution, food pollution, noise pollution and radio-active pollution, etc.

FACTORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

The „environmental crisis‟ is caused due to environment and ecological changes as a result of

developmental process of the ‘economic and technological man” of the present century. In fact if the present

century is marked by socio-economic, scientific and technological development on the one hand, it is plagued by

serious problems of environmental problems on the other hand. The environmental crisis arising out of the

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environmental deterioration caused by several forms of pollution, depletion of natural resources because of rapid

rate of their exploitation and increasing dependence on energy consuming and ecologically damaging

technologies, the loss of habitats due to industrial, urban and agricultural expansion, reduction and loss of

ecological populations due to excessive use of toxic pesticides and herbicides and loss of several species of plants

due to practice of monoculture removal of habitats through forest clearance has now become of global concern.

The life of common man is being so rapidly adversely affected by environmental degradation caused by man

himself that there has been a marked growth of interest within the last decade in the quality of the environment,

the disruption of the earth’s natural ecosystems and the depletion of resources.

The most striking reason of the environmental degradation and hence global environmental crisis is the

fact of deteriorating relationship between man and environment because of rapid rate of exploitation of natural

resources, technological development and industrial expansion. The rate of environmental change and resultant

environmental degradation caused by human activities has been so fast and widespread.

The impact of man on environment through his economic activities are varied and highly complex as the

transformation or modification of the natural condition and process leads to a series of changes in the biotic and

abiotic components of the environment. The impacts of man on environment fall into two categories (i) direct or

intentional impacts and (ii) indirect or unintentional impacts, Direct or intentional impact of human activities are

preplanned and premeditated because man is aware of the consequences, both positive and negative of any

programme which is launched to change or modify the natural environment for economic development of the

region concerned. The effects of anthropogenic changes in the environment are noticeable within short period

and these effects are reversible. On the other hand the indirect impacts of human activities on the environment are

not premeditated and preplanned and these impacts arise from those human activities which are directed to

accelerate the pace of economic growth, especially industrial development. The indirect impacts are experienced

after long time when they become cumulative. These indirect effects of human economic activities may change

the overall natural environmental system and the chain-effects sometimes degrade the environment to such an

extent that this becomes suicidal for human beings.

MAIN CAUSES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

The problem of environmental pollution, we face today, is a complex consequence of forces connected

with various interrelating factors. There are clearly a number of divergent and conflicting views of what could be

the basic factors underlying the environmental crisis. No single cause can be considered as the root cause of

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environmental impairment. However, the following causes could be pointed out as the generally underlying

factors though each of these too could be operating simultaneously and their balance may vary from place to

place and through time.

1. Population growth

Modern thinkers consider that growth of population is the root cause for many human problems. This

observation also applies to environmental degradation. Increase in the population will have a multiplier effect

requiring proportionate increase in all requirements necessary for the existence of human beings. Population

growth requires abnormal exploitation of natural resources to provide day-to-day essential requirements of life. It

results in migration of people and growth of urban areas, thereby inviting new problems of health, ecology and

human sustenance.

2. Increased General Affluence and Economic Growth

The affluence (i.e. material aspects of per capita consumption of goods and resources) is an important

factor in man-resource- environment relationship. It is the increasing per capita demand of rich which is

absorbing the growth in output of goods and services in the developed and developing countries and cause misuse

or overuse and pollution of resources, for the affluence unmatched to the necessary resource consumption and not

motivated by human requirements produce tendency to waste matter and energy. Surprisingly, affluence factor

though, having a great impact on environment, is seldom talked about. On the other hand, poor and the poverty

often get blamed for the destruction of environment. The notion that poverty or the poor destroy the environment

most is but partially true.

3. Nature of Modern Technology

The nature of productive technology in recent years is closely related to the environmental crisis. Commoner

maintains that sweeping transformations of productive technology since World War II productive technologies

with intense impacts on environment have displaced less destructive ones. This factor has been largely

responsible for the generation of synthetic and non-biodegradable substances such as plastics, chemical nitrogen

fertilizers, synthetic detergents, synthetic fibres, big cars, petrochemical and other environmentally injurious

industries and ‘disposable culture. Thus, environmental crisis is the inevitable result of a counter ecological

pattern of productive growth. Ecologically benign technologies did and do exist but they are not utilized, for they

are considered inconsistent with the short-term interests of private profit maximization.

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4. Deforestation

Forests are invaluable property of a nation because they provide raw materials to modern industries,

timber for building purposes, habitats for numerous types of animals and micro-organisms. Good fertile and

nutrient-rich soils having high content of organic matter, offer protection to soils by binding the soils through the

network of their roots and by protecting the soils from direct impact of falling raindrops. They encourage and

increase infiltration of rainwater and thus allow maximum recharge of groundwater resources, minimize surface

run-off and hence reduce the frequency, intensity and dimension of floods. They help in increasing the

precipitation; they are natural sink of carbon dioxide because they use carbon dioxide to prepare their food during

the process of photosynthesis. They provide firewood to millions of people all over the world and food and

shelter to innumerable humans and animals. In fact, forests are ‘life line’ of a nation because prosperity and

welfare of the society directly depends on sound and healthy forest cover of a nation concerned. Forests are main

component of the biotic components of the natural environmental system and the stability of the environment and

ecological balance largely depend on the status of the forests of the region concerned.

It is a matter of serious concern that the present economic man has forgotten the environment and

ecological significance of natural vegetations mainly forests and grasslands and has destroyed the forests so

rapidly and alarmingly that the forest areas at global, regional and local levels have so markedly decreased that

several serious environmental problems such as accelerated rate of soil loss through rain splash, sheet wash, rill

and gully erosion, increase in the frequency and dimension of floods, greater, incidence of drought due to

decrease in precipitation etc. have plagued the modern human society. The major causes of deforestation at global

and regional levels are conversion of forest land into agricultural land, shifting cultivation, transformation of

forests into pastures, overgrazing, forest fires, lumbering, multipurpose river projects etc.

Deforestation gives birth to several problems encompassing environmental degradation through

accelerated rate of soil erosion, increase in the sediment load of the rivers, siltation or reservoirs and river beds,

increase in the frequency and dimension of Hoods and droughts, changes in the pattern of distribution of

precipitation, intensification of greenhouse effects increase in the destructive force of the atmospheric storms etc.

economic loss through damages of agricultural crops due to increased incidence of floods and draughts, decrease

in agricultural production of loss of fertile top soils, decrease in the supply of raw materials to the industries and

building matters etc. Thus deforestation cause a chain effects which adversely affect the natural environment.

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5. Agricultural Development

Agricultural development means expansion of agricultural land increase in agricultural productivity and

net agricultural production. It is due to development of modern scientific techniques, advanced technologies,

increased production and use of chemical fertilizers, expansion in irrigational facilities, development of high-

yielding varieties of seeds, etc. This has solved the problem of growing demand of food due to ever increasing

world population on the one hand; it has also created or is creating hazardous environmental problems of serious

concern on the other hand. Thus modern economic and technological man is at the cross road of dangers in all

directions.

The agricultural development degrades the environment in a variety of ways, e.g. (i) through the

application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and insecticides, (ii) through the increase in irrigational

facilities and amount of irrigation, (iii) by making changes in biological communities etc.

Conversion of forests land into agricultural farms on sloppy ground accelerates rate of soil erosion.

Increased in agricultural land at the cost of destruction ol forest and consequent soil erosion, substantial increase

in the productivity of land through the practice of intensive cultivation, increased use of machines and modern

scientific techniques, application of chemical fertilities, pesticides, insecticides and herbicides, increase in the

frequency and area of watering of agricultural fields, etc. All these processes and measures of increased

agricultural development cause several serious environmental problems. It appears that the root cause of all these

environmental problems arising out of agricultural development is the increase of human population at alarming

rate. So the foremost step to be taken is to stop population growth because if population continues to grow

agricultural development has to be maintained.

6. Industrial Development

“Rapid Industrial Development has given economic prosperity to human society. It has also given new

dimension to socio-economic structure and has provided material comfort to the people of industrially developed

countries but it has also created many fold environmental problems. In fact, the glittering effects of

industrialization have affected the mind of the general public that industrialisation is now being considered as the

parameter of modernity and as a necessary element of socio-economic development of a nation.

Rapid rate of industrialization resulted into rapid rate of exploitation of natural resources and increased

industrial output. Both the components of industrial development e.g. exploitation of natural resources and

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industrial production have created several lethal environmental problems and have caused large scale

environmental problems and ecological imbalance at global, regional and local levels in a variety of ways.

Exploitation of natural resources in order to meet the industrial demand of raw materials has resulted into (i) the

reduction of forest covers due to reckless falling of trees, (ii) excavation of land for mining purposes, (iii)

reduction in arable land due to industrial expansion, (iv) lowering of groundwater level due to excessive

withdrawal of groundwater, (v) collapsing of ground surface due to withdrawal of mineral oil and groundwater,

etc.

Besides desired production there are numerous undesired outputs from the factories such as industrial

wastes, polluted water, toxic gases, chemical precipitates, aerosol ashes and smokes etc. which pollute air, water,

land, soils etc., and thus degrade the environment. The industrialized countries have increased the concentration

of pollutants emitted from the factories in the air, water and land to such an extent that they have degraded the

environment to the critical limit and have brought the human society on the brink of its destruction.

The adverse effects of industrialization may change the overall character of natural system and the chain-

effects sometimes become suicidal for human society. Majority of the impacts of industrialization are related to

pollution and environmental degradation. The release of toxic elements into the environment through the

application of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides (output of chemical industries) changes the food

chains and food webs and physical and chemical properties of soils. Similarly the release of industrial wastes

into stagnant waters of ponds, tanks, and lakes into rivers and seas contaminates water and causes several

diseases and deaths of organism and thus disturbs ecological balance of aquatic ecosystem.

Increasing industrial expansion is responsible for the release of enormous quantities of pollutants (e.g.)

ions of chlorine, sulphate, bicarbonate, nitrate, sodium, magnesium, phosphate, through sewage effluents into the

rivers and the lakes and thus for contaminating the water. Release of several gases, smokes, ashes and other

aerosols from the chimneys of the factories adversely affects the environment in a number of ways. The burning

of hydrocarbon fuels (coal and petroleum) has increased the concentration of C02 in the atmosphere and thus has

changed the natural gaseous composition of the atmosphere. The increase in the construction of C02 content of

the atmosphere may change global radiation and heat balance by increasing the level of sensible heat in the

atmosphere because C02 intensifies the greenhouse effects of the atmosphere as C02 allows the solar radiation to

pass through the atmosphere and reach the earth’s surface but stops the outgoing long wave terrestrial radiation

from escaping to the space release of chlorofluoro carbon in the atmosphere causes depletion of ozone layer.

Depletion in ozone layer means less absorption of ultraviolet solar rays and thus substantial increase in the

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temperature at the earth surface. Thus changed in the global radiation and heat balance caused due to increase in

the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and depletion of ozone layer may cause changes in

weather and climatic conditions at global and regional levels may cause severe damages to plant and animal lives

and thus may cause ecological imbalance. It may cause dangerous diseases like skin cancer etc.

Release of toxic gases through advertent and inadvertent actions of man causes environmental hazards

which destroy all types of life forms in the affected areas. The Bhopal Gas Tragedy (December 3-4, 1984, India)

is an example of disastrous effects of modern industrialization. Acid rains, urban smogs, nuclear holocaust, etc.,

are the other forms of environment hazards emanating from industrialization.

7. Urbanization

Exodus of population from rural areas to urban centre and origin and expansion of new urban centres due

to industrial expansion and development are responsible for rapid rate of exploitation of natural resources and

several types of environment degradation and pollution in the developed and developing countries. The level of

urbanisation in the developed countries of the world has already reached its peak. The accumulation of wealth

and availability of more economic and job opportunity in the urban centres have resulted into the concentration

of population in the congested metropolitan areas and thus the formation and growth of big slum areas.

In fact, increasing urbanization means increase in the concentration of human population in limited space

which results in the increase of buildings, roads and streets, sewage and storm drains, vehicles (motor cars, trucks,

buses, motor cycles, etc.) number of factories, urban wastes, aerosols, smokes and dusts, sewages waters etc.

which cause several environmental problems. For example, increasing population of the urban centres uses

enormous amount of water for various purposes. The used waste water like sewage water, if untreated, pollutes

the streams and lakes because the urban effluents are allowed to be drained into them.

Urban centres when combined with industrial sectors become more hazardous from the standpoint of

environmental problems and pollution. Huge quantity of aerosols and gases is emitted from Chimneys of

factories and vehicles which form “Dust Domes” over the cities. These Dust Domes cause ‘Pollution Domes’ over

the cities. The urban and industrial growth has resulted into rapid rate of deterioration of the quality of air

because of heavy pollution of air through gases and aerosols emitted from the vehicles, factories and house-hold

appliances. About 60 per cent, of the pollution of Indian capital city of Delhi is contributed by vehicles, Calcutta

and Bombay metropolitan areas have also reached high level of air pollution. According to the survey report of

the National Environmental Research Institute, Nagpur (India) the level of air pollution in Delhi, Calcutta,

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Bombay, Madras, Ahmedabad, Cochin, Hyderabad, Kanpur, Nagpur etc. has gone up. Besides industrial wastes

from industrial cities, huge quantity of urban solid wastes also creates environmental problems. The quantity of

urban solid wastes is rapidly increasing with urban expansion and growth in urban population.

8. Unplanned Urbanization

The skewed urban development has deteriorated the environment visibly and considerably in both the

urban and rural areas. The urban areas suffer from their own plight, squatter settlements, lack of sanitation and

water supply, overcrowding, congestion and pollution. The cities in India are facing environmental problems like

lack of sanitation, chronic shortage of traffic congestion etc. Moreover, the domestic and industrial waste

disposal in the urban areas is very serious. Most of the cities are lacking sewer systems. For example studies by

the Central Board for the prevention and control of water pollution have shown that the discharge of community

wastage and industrial effluents is the major cause of water pollution. At present 56% of Class-I cities and 87%

of Class II towns do not possess sewerage facilities. We therefore need a well controlled and well managed

process of urbanisation in order to curb rural urban migration and other related problems.

9. Coal burnt Thermal Power Plants

Power Plants either in public or private sector mainly use coal for generation of electricity. About 62% of

the coal produced in our country is utilized for generation of electricity which accounts of 65% of power

generation. This process results in the accumulation of various by-products such as bottom ash, boiler slag and

fly ash. Fly ash alone amounts to more than 70% of the total quantity. Disposal of this huge amount of tty ash is

a difficult and sensitive task. Though this material can be used in manufacture of cement, brick and also used as

soil conditioner but these activities have not gained much popularity due to economical and social consideration.

Even if the fly ash is utilized for the above mentioned activities, it will not be possible to utilize even 30% to

40% of the ash produced. Thus there is a need to store the ash produced in such a way as to have minimum

damage to air, water and soil bodies. A super thermal power plant built on about 800 acres of land normally

requires 1200 acres for ash disposal. On the basis of the ash production trends the area requirement for dumping

of the ash is around 40000 hectares. Power plants are preferably placed away from the human settlements and

moreover on waste lands, but with course of time some of the cultivable area is also covered for ash mount site.

Presence of ash particularly in the atmosphere is of major concern to the people living close to the plant site. This

is particularly severe in summers due to prevailing high wind speeds. The finer fractions of fly ash are potentially

harmful as they get deposited in lungs/pulmonary tissues of respiratory track when inhaled.14

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10. Poverty

It is true that poor cause damage to environment. Due to poverty the people exploit excessively the natural

resources of the country for meeting their basic needs (food, fuel, shelter, employment fodder for their cattle).

Poverty and need are indeed the greatest polluters as told by late Mrs. Indira Gandhi in her address to the

Stockholm Conference. Hence necessary steps should be taken to bring the poor people above the poverty line.

CONCLUSION

The causes for environmental problems are many. The multiplicity of causes makes it difficult to clearly

delineate the causes and consequences of environmental degradation in terms of simple one to one relationship.

The causes and effects are often interwoven in complex webs of social, technological, environmental and

political factors. However, some of the very common causes of environmental degradation which can be clearly

pointed out are the population growth, the economic growth associated with the affluence factor and change of

technology. Population is an important resource for development, yet it is a major cause of environmental

degradation when it exceeds the threshold limits of the support systems. The overriding impact of adverse

demographic pressure ultimately falls on our resources and ecosystems. Combined with it the conditions of

poverty and underdevelopment themselves create a situation where the people are forced to live in squalor and

further degrade their environment. The process of development itself also leads to damage of the environment, if

not properly managed. Associated with the rapid economic growth, the extravagant affluence consume far more

resources and put far greater pressure on natural resources. The change of technology causes planned

obsolescence causing the generation of more and more wastes which in turn prove ecologically harmful. Short-

term interests of private profit maximization, further, hamper the process of replacement of obsolete technologies

by the ecologically benign technologies.

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  • … Faced with the serious problem of air pollution that comes mainly from automotive emissions and the different industries that generate considerable amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, which are released into the atmosphere, producing harmful effects to the ozone layer affecting the health of people, animals, and plants (Appannagari, 2017), many countries have decided to promote the development and use of new alternative energy sources, which offer advantages over existing ones, either because of their lower polluting effect or fundamentally because of their renewal possibility (Omer, of food, which restricts their use for biofuels, so an alternative is the use of crops of easy climate adaptation and little exploitation for food processing (Zhang, 2013). Current biorefineries producing first generation biofuels from food crops have impacted nexus resources, most notoriously land and food but also water and fossel energy resources required during cultivation and processing. …

    Comparative extraction of Jatropha curcas L. lipids by conventional and enzymatic methods

    Due high proportion of oil in Jatropha curcas seed (50–60%), it is interest to identify methods for their extraction. In addition, the residual paste is rich in proteins and could be used safely as raw matter for other processes. In the present work, we propose the use of a crude pineapple green extract (Ananas comosus L.) with a high content of enzymes with different proteolytic activities (1.18–5.90 IUT) to extract oil. A comparative extraction was made between the enzymatic treatment, a microwaves heat treatmet, the combination of both methods and the Soxhlet extraction. The oil yield with the crude extract, after 6 h of enzymatic hydrolysis was 46.9%, whereas after microwaving (3 min), the enzymatic hydrolysis treatment increased the yield to 54%. Oil was characterized physicochemically without showing difference between treatments. Fatty acids present in the J. curcas oil are the unsaturated fatty acids: oleic, linoleic, palmitoleic, as well as saturated ones like palmitic, stearic, and myristic. The use of enzymatic extracts combined with microwaves is a good alternative to improve the yields without altering the chemical and physical characteristics of the Jatropha oil.

    • I A Khan

    Khan, I.A., Environmental Law, Central Law Agency, Allahabad, 2002.

  • Environment Protection Law and Policy in India

    • Kailash Thakur

    Kailash Thakur, Environment Protection Law and Policy in India, Deep and Deep Publications, New Delhi.

  • Pollution Control in the South and North: A Comparative Assessment of Environmental Policy Approaches in India and the Netherlands

    • O J Kuik

    Kuik, O.J. et al. Pollution Control in the South and North: A Comparative Assessment of Environmental Policy Approaches in India and the Netherlands, New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1997.

  • Between Generations: Environment and Social Justice

    • H Salve

    Salve, H., ‘justice Between Generations: Environment and Social Justice’, in A.N.Kripal, A. Desai, G Subramanium, R. Dhavan and R. Ramachandran eds. Supreme But Not Infallible, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001.

  • Economic Growth and the Environment

    We examine the reduced-form relationship between per capita income and various environmental indicators. Our study covers four types of indicators: urban air pollution, the state of the oxygen regime in river basins, fecal contamination of river basins, and contamination of river basins by heavy metals. We find no evidence that environmental quality deteriorates steadily with economic growth. Rather, for most indicators, economic growth brings an initial phase of deterioration followed by a subsequent phase of improvement. The turning points for the different pollutants vary, but in most cases they come before a country reaches a per capita income of $8000.

  • Environmental Law and Policy in India: Cases, Materials and Statutes.

    Environmental law and policy in India affects most sections of society. This edition scrutinizes almost every aspect of environmental law concerned with constitutional and legislative provisions, judicial remedies and procedures, water pollution control, air pollution control, forests, wild life protection, the Bhopal gas leak case, transnational environmental policies, international environmental law and global issues. Interlaced with notes, comments and questions, the updated edition should prove useful for students, academics, lawyers, activists, and NGOs.

  • Integrated Pollution Control and Its Impact

    Integrated Pollution Control (IPC) was a major innovation in environmental law. Introduced as part of the UK Environmental Protection Act 1990 (EPA 1990), the organising idea of IPC is a holistic view of the environment as one integrated medium rather than as three distinct entities (air, land, and water). After some years’ experience with the operation of IPC, it is now time to take stock and to consider how it has been used and what its impact has been. Accordingly, this empirically-informed paper aims to analyze the experience of IPC from the point of view of those firms subject to it, in an effort to understand what it means for firms to be subject to the regulatory demands of IPC. In particular, what pressures and benefits are companies aware of, how do they respond and adapt to the demands of IPC, and what incentives and motivations drive their behaviour in response to IPC? The analysis also considers the question of possible bias in the regulatory regime, and explores whether the burden of environmental regulation falls evenly upon all firms.

  • Legal Transplants: An Approach to Comparative Law

  • Environmental education in Sweden

    Schools and higher education institutions in Sweden have developed a wide range of innovative and demanding curricula to meet the objectives of Sweden’s environmental policy. Environmental education in compulsory schools is taught principally through biological sciences, although social studies are beginning to occupy a substantial component of the environmental curriculum. Upper secondary schools offer more opportunities to develop environmental awareness, understanding and practical skills than comparable sixth form and post-secondary colleges in England. In Sweden there is a strong emphasis on practical work developed through projects based on contemporary environmental issues and their resolution. The development of environmental education has been well supported by a substantial input of new resources, especially materials developed by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and Industry. Universities have also begun to adopt new organisational structures to help develop inter-disciplinary teaching and research teams. Several universities are experimenting with common core courses, parts of which comprise environmental elements.

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